My research focuses on the connection between Islam and ecology. The purpose is to present Islamic perspectives on ecology. What currents of environmental thinking can be found within Islam today and what within Islam can support environmental friendly thinking? Questions which are the central actors and how they engage in environmentalism are discussed as well. Furthermore, I take an interest in how Islamic eco-theology has developed and how the social structure influences environmentally friendly practices. The essential theoretical framework falls within sociology of religion with a focus on how the law has developed, urbanisation and global change. The four main themes in the research are transnationalism, social movements, ecology and religion, and the religious and the secular, and the material consists primarily of literature studies and of fieldwork conducted mainly in Turkey and Lebanon. In Turkey I interviewed representatives of civil society, of the ruling political party and religious leaders. I worked as the research-coordinator at the Finnish Institute in the Middle East (FIME) in Beirut, Lebanon, for a year. FIME is a research institute operating across the Middle East cooperating with both Finnish and local universities, which gave me the opportunity to deepen my insights and to network in the region.